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Type XXI U-Boats

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    Posted: January 29 2007 at 7:12am
Tony,
 
yes a long slender object filled with seamen, does not seem fun
 
CM
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Tony Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 29 2007 at 2:23am
Gives me the shudders. I went down in a sub once! Never again!! Like a coffin with engines!   Dead
Rottie (PitBulls dad.)


“If electricity comes from electrons, does morality come from morons

Born free taxed to death!!!

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Cookie Monster Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 28 2007 at 1:45pm
Tony,
I know all these carried .303 Enfield's on them used by their marines.
 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Cookie Monster Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 28 2007 at 1:43pm
Seraph%20in%201944
HMS/M Seraph in 1944
already with some streamlining, for use as a fast target to simulate newer U-boats.
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HMS/M%20Thorn
HMS/M Thorn
Lost in August 1942 in Mediterranean.
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Sturgeon.jpg
HMS/M Sturgeon
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HMS/M Scorcher
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regent3.jpg
HMS/M Regent
Very similar to the P Class, the R Class comprised Rainbow, Regulus, Regent and Rover
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Clyde
HMS/M Clyde
One of the three River Class, (others were Thames and Severn). Double-hull, ocean-going boats, designed for long range and high speed. See Clyde. Severn and Clyde survived the war and were scrapped in 1946 in Ceylon and South Africa respectively. Thames had been lost on mines off Norway in 1940.
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HMS/M Rorqual
Porpoise Class minelaying boat, one of six (others were Narwhal, Porpoise, Grampus, Seal and Cachalot)
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The Next few Submarines are from the Royal Navy's WW II Fleet
 
 
L26.jpg
HMS/M L26
Single hull, saddle tank submarines, improvements of the famous E Class of WW1. 36 boats built, of which three - L23, L26 and L27 - were still in service in 1939. Used mainly for training.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Cookie Monster Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 28 2007 at 1:29pm

U-boot warfare

Type XVIII U-boot

The XVIII was the first operational submarine design to use the Walter drive. The Walter engine used hydrogen peroxide for combustion, instead of outside air. Hydrogen peroxide is a liquid that can be stored in tanks aboard a submarine, but it also highly reactive and therefore dangerous. With the Walter engine the Type XVIII reached a speed of 24 knots underwater, but it was considered too dangerous. Orders for this type were cancelled in favour of the type XXI.

Type XXI U-boot

Derived from the hull of the type XVIII, the type XXI had a diesel-electric engine system comparable to that of older U-boats, but with greatly enlarged battery capacity. This earned it the name "Elektrik Boot". Together with the streamlined hull this allowed the type XXI to reach high speeds under water (17 knots submerged, 16 knots on the surface) and stay under water for up to three days. This made the 2100-ton type XXI U-boot a much more dangerous adversary than the older type VII, which had become far too vulnerable to allied aircraft. It carried 23 torpedoes for its six tubes, which were loaded hydraulically. Shipyards delivered 120 of this type to the Kriegsmarine, but it was too late. The type XXI was much copied after the war.

Type XXIII U-boot

The type XXIII was a 275-ton submarine for coastal operations. Like the XXI, it had an enlarged battery capacity. It was much smaller, and carried only two torpedoes. About 60 were delivered.

Acoustic Torpedoes

The T4, T5 Zaunkönig and T11 torpedoes were fitted with primitive acoustic homing devices. These were primarily intended for use against escort vessels. However, both the T4 and T5 were easily diverted by noisemaking decoys, which were towed by allied ships. The T11 did not enter service.

In a different category were the FAT and LUT devices. Fitted to standard torpedoes, these caused them to run in a preset pattern, instead of a straight line. They were intended for use against convoys.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Cookie Monster Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: January 28 2007 at 1:28pm
World War II Torpedoes

The failure of the German Magnetic Pistol and backup striker gear is well known.  The Magnetic Pistol was withdrawn in 1940 and did not reappear until 1943.  However, Italian aerial torpedoes with a different kind of magnetic pistol were used by the Germans throughout the war.  The best of the German Magnetic Pistols was the TZ5 used in the T5 torpedo.  It was basically a metal detector with two coils.  An improved model TZ6 could be fitted to any 21" (53.3 cm) torpedo but was only approved for use as the war ended.

Most torpedoes used whisker-type impact pistols, but these could not be used on homing torpedoes.  Instead, homing torpedoes used an inertial pistol located at the rear of the warhead.

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World War I Torpedoes

The standard explosive charge was 60% TNT and 40% hexanitrodiphenylamine in blocks.  This had first been developed by the Germans in 1907 and was very resistant to shock.  This explosive was about 7% more powerful than 100% TNT.

World War II Torpedoes

SW18:  50% TNT, 24% HND, 15% Aluminum
SW36:  67% TNT, 8% HND, 25% Aluminum
SW39:  45% TNT, 5% HND, 30% Amonium Nitrate, 20% Aluminum
SW39a:  50% TNT, 10% HND, 5% Amonium Nitrate, 35 % Aluminum

HND = Hexanitrodiphenylamine.

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World War I Torpedoes

Most German torpedoes designed before 1906 used three-cylinder radial engines based upon the Brotherhood system, which used compressed air as a power source.  Later versions used a Brotherhood four-cylinder central crank engine which had increased power.

After 1906, German designs used wet-heater motors.  These pre-heated the air being fed into the engine, significantly increasing the range of the torpedo.

World War II Torpedoes

During World War II, submarines generally carried electric motor torpedoes, as these made little noise and were essentially wakeless.  Surface ships did not use these as it was felt that the shock of the torpedo hitting the water would rupture the batteries.  Instead, surface ships used wet-heater engines notable for using Decalin (decahydronaphthalene) instead of kerosene for fuel.  Much research was performed upon hydrogen peroxide fuels during World War II, but no torpedo using this fuel ever entered service.

Post-World War II Torpedoes

Post-war designs rely upon silver-zinc batteries for power.

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World War I and World War II Torpedoes

German Torpedos manufactured prior to the end of World War II were designated as to their diameter, length and propulsion.  Modifications were usually, but not always, denoted by T numbers.  Standard designations were as follows:

   Diameter:  F = 45 cm, G = 50 or 53.3 cm, H = 60 cm, J = 70 cm and M = 75 cm
   Length:  To the nearest meter
   Propulsion:  a = air/steam (Wet Heater), e = electric, u = hydrogen peroxide

For example, the designation G7e T2 meant that the torpedo was 53.3 cm (21") in diameter, was about 7 meters long, had an electric motor and was the second modification to the original design.

The outfit for U-Boats was at least four electric torpedoes for every wet-heater while surface ships used only wet-heaters.  Schnellbootes (E-boats) used primarily wet-heaters, although electrics were also issued.

Italian torpedoes used by the Germans were denoted by the manufacturer, w for Whitehead (Fiume) and i for Silurificio Italiano (Naples).

During World War II, over sixty different torpedo designs were tested, 16 using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant.  Monthly production rose from 70 before the war to 1,000 by the spring of 1941, to a peak of 1,700 in 1943 and then fell to 1,400 during 1944.  Total production of 53.3 cm (21") torpedoes was about 70,000.  However, not counting those expended for testing, destroyed in bombed depots or lost in sunken ships, wartime expenditures were just over 10,000 of which about 7,000 were electric G7e, 2,300 wet-heater G7a and 640 electric acoustic homing T5 (Zaunkönig 1).  Manufacturing took place at Deutsche Weke Kiel, Julius Pintsche Berlin, Auto-Union Zwickau, Borgward Bremen and Planeta Dresden.
 

Post-World War II Torpedoes

German torpedoes are named after sea animals.

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